Though this method has its limitations, it’s still the standard way of measuring astigmatism. http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/astigmatism?sso=y#2, http://www.ophthalmologyweb.com/Tech-Spotlights/26530-Keratometry-Focusing-on-Astigmatism/, https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-do-astigmatism-measurements-mean, http://phisick.com/item/placidos-disk-for-astigmatism/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25162757, http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2212759, https://www.eyeworld.org/article-review-of--contribution-of-posterior-corneal-astigmatism-to-total-corneal-astigmatism-, http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/astigmatism/diagnosis-treatment/diagnosis/dxc-20253081, consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. Our priority as always is to ensure the safety of our employees and our patients. Professional medical organization dedicated to supporting optometrists and improving public eye and vision health, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/3\/38\/Measure-Astigmatism-Step-1-Version-2.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Astigmatism-Step-1-Version-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/3\/38\/Measure-Astigmatism-Step-1-Version-2.jpg\/aid1456685-v4-728px-Measure-Astigmatism-Step-1-Version-2.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

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