Birmingham was the terminus for both of the world's first two long-distance railway lines: the 82-mile Grand Junction Railway of 1837 and the 112-mile London and Birmingham Railway of 1838. ( Log Out / , The 18th century saw this tradition of free-thinking and collaboration blossom into the cultural phenomenon now known as the Midlands Enlightenment.  During the late 1990s Ghamkol Shariff Masjid was built in Small Heath.  More conventional seasons by Welsh National Opera and other visiting opera companies take place regularly at the Birmingham Hippodrome.. This exhibition is part of Anchor Gallery at the pub, so I hope you will be able to pop in and view my art. The last remaining large gun and rifle manufacturer in the area is Westley Richards.  Relationships were built around pragmatic commercial linkages rather than the rigid paternalism and deference of feudal society, and loyalties to the traditional hierarchies of the established church and aristocracy were weak. During the 1960s, Birmingham was the home of a music scene comparable to that of Liverpool.  Recent years have seen these businesses increasingly showcased at farmers markets, popular street food events and food festivals including Birmingham Independent Food Fair..
, The city suffered heavy bomb damage during World War II's "Birmingham Blitz". The trade employed 2,867 people in 1851, out of a total of 7,731 in the whole of England and Wales.  Birmingham is the largest centre in Great Britain for employment in public administration, education and health; and after Leeds the second largest centre outside London for employment in financial and other business services. Many of the workers were women due to the enlistment of men into the armed forces. Hartlebury It is claimed government cuts to local authorities have hit Birmingham disproportionately. , Birmingham has a temperate maritime climate, like much of the British Isles, with average maximum temperatures in summer (July) being around 21.3 °C (70.3 °F); and in winter (January) around 6.7 °C (44.1 °F).
 The town developed into a notable centre of literary, musical, artistic and theatrical activity; and its leading citizens – particularly the members of the Lunar Society of Birmingham – became influential participants in the circulation of philosophical and scientific ideas among Europe's intellectual elite. , The BBC has two facilities in the city. The Gun Quarter is a district of the city that was, for many years, a centre of the world's gun-manufacturing industry. Opening Times Hours may differ. , Birmingham's role as a manufacturing and printing centre has supported strong local traditions of graphic design and product design. A number of Georgian buildings survive, including St Philip's Cathedral, Soho House, Perrott's Folly, the Town Hall and much of St Paul's Square. The bombings were the worst terror attacks in England up until the 2005 London bombings and consisted of bombs being planted in two pubs in central Birmingham. The 19th century saw further expansion, with the Quarter meeting the demand for the Napoleonic Wars, Crimean War, American Civil War and the furthest outposts of the British Empire.
Birmingham's gun trade still exists as a small specialised industry, though only just in evidence in what remains of the old Gun Quarter. The city was also the scene of two scientific discoveries that were to prove critical to the outcome of the war. , Innovation in 18th-century Birmingham often took the form of incremental series of small-scale improvements to existing products or processes, but also included major developments that lay at the heart of the emergence of industrial society.  This created a "chain reaction of innovation", forming a pivotal link between the earlier scientific revolution and the Industrial Revolution that would follow. The Alexandra Theatre and the Birmingham Hippodrome host large-scale touring productions, while professional drama is performed on a wide range of stages across the city, including the Crescent Theatre, the Custard Factory, the Old Joint Stock Theatre, the Drum in Aston and the mac in Cannon Hill Park.
The WMCA holds devolved powers in transport, development planning, and economic growth.  This included the construction of large tower block estates, such as Castle Vale. A short distance from Five Ways the Birmingham Oratory was completed in 1910 on the site of Cardinal Newman's original foundation. The importance of the trade to the town grew rapidly throughout the 18th century, with large numbers of guns produced for the slave trade. , Birmingham is a snowy city relative to other large UK conurbations, due to its inland location and comparatively high elevation.
Hartlebury Trading Estate The principal governing institutions of medieval Birmingham – including the Guild of the Holy Cross and the lordship of the de Birmingham family – collapsed between 1536 and 1547, leaving the town with an unusually high degree of social and economic freedom and initiating a period of transition and growth.  The city is served by the M5, M6, M40, and M42 motorways, and possibly the most well known motorway junction in the United Kingdom: Spaghetti Junction, a colloquial name for the Gravelly Hill Interchange.
 During the 1st-century Roman conquest of Britain, the forested country of the Birmingham Plateau formed a barrier to the advancing Roman legions, who built the large Metchley Fort in the area of modern-day Edgbaston in AD 48, and made it the focus of a network of Roman roads..
Digbeth is one of the most distinctive parts of the city and is less than ten minutes walk from Bullring & Grand Central. A full list of services can be found on our A–Z listings page. The Napoleonic Wars required special efforts, and between 1804 and 1817 a total of 1,827,889 muskets, rifles, carbines, and pistols were manufactured for the Government alone.  Birmingham Botanical Gardens, located close to the city centre, retains the regency landscape of its original design by J. C. Loudon in 1829, while the Winterbourne Botanic Garden in Edgbaston reflects the more informal Arts and Crafts tastes of its Edwardian origins.
Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. In 2011, of all households in Birmingham, 0.12% were same-sex civil partnership households, compared to the English national average of 0.16%. Government viewing rooms were opened in Bagot Street in 1798, employing sixty or seventy people to ensure that guns produced were of the necessary standard to provide for the British army. Birmingham is the largest local Authority area and city in the UK outside of London.  Aston Manor Brewery is currently the only brewery of any significant size.  Sir Herbert Manzoni, City Engineer and Surveyor of Birmingham from 1935 until 1963, believed conservation of old buildings was sentimental and that the city did not have any of worth anyway.
Professional boxing, hockey, skateboarding, stock-car racing, greyhound racing and speedway also takes place within the city.
 Birmingham City Council also operate a locally listing scheme for buildings that do not fully meet the criteria for statutorily listed status.
9.1% of people said their day-to-day activities were limited a lot by their health which was higher than the national average.  Birmingham was selected ahead of London and Manchester to bid for the 1992 Summer Olympics, but was unsuccessful in the final selection process, which was won by Barcelona..  By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire, a position it would retain for the next 200 years. , Today, the economy of Birmingham is dominated by the service sector, which in 2012 accounted for 88% of the city's employment.
, By the 1820s, an extensive canal system had been constructed, giving greater access to natural resources and fuel for industries. Alexander Stadium, which will host the ceremonies and athletics, will be renovated and the capacity will be increased to 40,000 seats.
The outbreak of World War I saw the Government once again approach Birmingham engineering companies with the prospect of arms manufacture, and within a matter of weeks Birmingham and the Gun Quarter witnessed much preparation for ammunition and gun manufacture.
In the late 19th century, Showell's Dictionary of Birmingham listed more than fifty specialist trades involved in gun manufacture, "till late years most of them being carried on under different roofs".. It is a major base for Ryanair and TUI Airways. The increasing mechanisation of gun manufacture in the US and Europe was a significant step in the decline of the Birmingham gun trade, which had for centuries been based on the skilled specialist craftsman. A 1788 Parliamentary report counted over 4,000 gun makers, with 100,000 guns a year going to slave traders.. After the First World War demand fell; the need for skilled, specialised labour fell as the market became flooded with cheaper, machine-made guns, and gun manufacturing in the area began a slow decline. During the Crimean War a large saw mill was erected in Turin by a gun maker from the quarter, and nearly a third of a million gun stocks were produced from this source alone.  By 1791, it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world".
Due to scheduled maintenance Council Tax, Business Rates and Benefits online will be unavailable from 7pm to 8pm Tuesday 3 November. The Gun Quarter is a district of the city of Birmingham, England, which was for many years a centre of the world’s gun-manufacturing industry, specialising in the production of military firearms and sporting guns. Such was the extent of the trade, that Hugh Thomas suggests that by 1765, '150,000 guns had been sent to Africa from Birmingham alone', being traded along with other pieces of hardware, metal or cloth, as the price for a slave. It is an industrial area to the north of the city centre, bounded by Steelhouse Lane, Shadwell Street and Loveday Street. Hi Callum, did you get your coursework in? Today, the city is home of two of the country's oldest professional football teams: Aston Villa F.C., which was founded in 1874 and plays at Villa Park; and Birmingham City F.C., which was founded in 1875 and plays at St Andrew's.