No. He gave up on the idea of going aft and jumped into the water to get away from the crowd. [107], The lifeboats were lowered every few minutes on each side, but most of the boats were greatly under-filled. The air temperature had fallen to near freezing, and the ocean was completely calm. [177], After they went under, the bow and stern took only about 5–6 minutes to sink 3,795 metres (12,451 ft), spilling a trail of heavy machinery, tons of coal and large quantities of debris from Titanic's interior. Message sent from Titanic: ‘CQD require assistance position 41.46 N 50.14 W struck iceberg Titanic.' Carl Jansson, one of the relatively small number of third-class survivors, later recalled: Then I run down to my cabin to bring my other clothes, watch and bag but only had time to take the watch and coat when water with enormous force came into the cabin and I had to rush up to the deck again where I found my friends standing with lifebelts on and with terror painted on their faces. [31] The lookouts were nonetheless well aware of the ice hazard, as Lightoller had ordered them and other crew members to "keep a sharp look-out for ice, particularly small ice and growlers". [98], At 00:45, lifeboat No. The deteriorating situation was reflected in the tone of the messages sent from the ship: "We are putting the women off in the boats" at 01:25, "Engine room getting flooded" at 01:35, and at 01:45, "Engine room full up to boilers. Lookouts Frederick Fleet and Reginald Lee were occupying the crow's nest, 29 metres (95 ft) above the deck. The first-class stewards provided hands-on assistance, helping their charges to get dressed and bringing them out onto the deck. At about 02:15, Titanic's angle in the water began to increase rapidly as water poured into previously unflooded parts of the ship through deck hatches. [114] She was a much slower vessel than Titanic and, even driven at her maximum speed of 17 kn (20 mph; 31 km/h), would have taken four hours to reach the sinking ship.

15 as it was being lowered. Most of the crew were not seamen, and even some of those had no prior experience of rowing a boat. That I should be caught in this death trap?

"[98] Some passengers refused flatly to embark. [170][171][172] The ship disappeared from view at 02:20, 2 hours and 40 minutes after striking the iceberg. When the liner sank in the Atlantic after hitting an iceberg there were only enough lifeboats on board to hold a third of the passengers and crew. He rang the lookout bell three times and telephoned the bridge to inform Sixth Officer James Moody.

[15], The ice conditions were attributed to a mild winter that caused large numbers of icebergs to shift off the west coast of Greenland. Titanic had been designed to accommodate up to 68 lifeboats[83] – enough for everyone on board – and the price of an extra 32 lifeboats would only have been some US$16,000 (equivalent to $424,000 in 2019),[5] a tiny fraction of the $7.5 million that the company had spent on Titanic. [177] The more popular top-down theory states that the breakup was centralized on the structural weak-point at the entrance to the first boiler room, and that the breakup formed first at the upper decks before shooting down to the keel. 8 left with 39[108] and No. [124] Irish survivor Margaret Murphy wrote in May 1912: Before all the steerage passengers had even a chance of their lives, the Titanic's sailors fastened the doors and companionways leading up from the third-class section ... A crowd of men was trying to get up to a higher deck and were fighting the sailors; all striking and scuffling and swearing. 14 headed back to the site of the sinking, almost all of those in the water were dead and only a few voices could still be heard. 5 boiler room,[63] and crewmen there were battling to pump it out. 4, having remained near the sinking ship, seems to have been closest to the site of the sinking at around 50 metres (160 ft) away; this had enabled two people to drop into the boat and another to be picked up from the water before the ship sank. [71] Her suddenly increasing angle caused what one survivor called a "giant wave" to wash along the ship from the forward end of the boat deck, sweeping many people into the sea. [11] Her passengers were a cross-section of Edwardian society, from millionaires such as John Jacob Astor and Benjamin Guggenheim,[12] to poor emigrants from countries as disparate as Armenia, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, Syria and Russia seeking a new life in the United States. [3], The passenger accommodation, especially the First Class section, was said to be "of unrivalled extent and magnificence",[4] indicated by the fares that First Class accommodation commanded. [74], Around 00:15, the stewards began ordering the passengers to put on their lifebelts,[76] though again, many passengers took the order as a joke. It was a cursory effort, consisting of two boats being lowered, each manned by one officer and four men who merely rowed around the dock for a few minutes before returning to the ship. "This tradition often caused time delays in filling the lifeboats as the women and children were singled out for priority in lifeboat placement, which often led to lifeboats being launched half full. [86] The White Star Line desired the ship to have a wide promenade deck with uninterrupted views of the sea, which would have been obstructed by a continuous row of lifeboats. 6 boiler room collapsed and they were swept away by "a wave of green foam" according to leading fireman Frederick Barrett, who barely escaped from the boiler room. [23], SS Californian reported "three large bergs" at 19:30, and at 21:40, the steamer Mesaba reported: "Saw much heavy pack ice and great number large icebergs. Poor management of the evacuation meant many boats were launched before they were completely full.

He erred on the side of caution by ordering his crew to begin preparing the lifeboats for loading, and to get the passengers into their lifebelts before he was told by Andrews that the ship was sinking. The distance between the location of the final distress call and where the ship actually sank was a problem when it came to locating the wreckage of the ship. Proximity to the lifeboats thus became a key factor in determining who got into them. [181] Sudden immersion into freezing water typically causes death within minutes, either from cardiac arrest, uncontrollable breathing of water, or cold incapacitation (not, as commonly believed, from hypothermia);[183] almost all of those in the water died of cardiac arrest or other bodily reactions to freezing water within 15–30 minutes.

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