The phalanges for digit 1 have been lost in the cat. If you continue to use the cookies, we will consider that you accept their use. FIGURE 7.21. A recent paper by Diogo and Molnar (2014), with the formidable title: ‘Comparative anatomy, evolution and homologies of tetrapod hindlimb muscles, comparison with forelimb muscles, and deconstruction of the forelimb-hindlimb serial homology hypothesis’ is available online, and is worth looking at, if only as an example of the level of scholarship still being applied to the study of comparative anatomy. This is another area of confusion. The accessory nerve arises from either the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae or the second and third lumbar vertebrae. The astragalus is the medial bone. The femur (Figure 7.22) is the bone of the proximal part of the hind limb, or thigh. The tibia (Figure 7.23) is the larger and medial bone of the crus, or middle segment of the hind limb. This group is formed by peroneus longus and brevis, and two muscles not described in man, peroneus digiti quarti and peroneus digiti quinti. As part of e-learning when you watch a video, our service provider Vimeo files cookies to your browser. This long thin strap muscle attaches proximally to the inferior ramus of the pubis and its body passing to its distal attachment site at the upper medial portion on the tibia. Pectineus is responsible for adduction and flexion of the thigh, and helps somewhat in rotation of the thigh medially. The tibial tuberosity, for insertion of the patellar ligament, lies anteriorly. The slender shaft widens distally. Above, the linea aspera is prolonged by three ridges. The mechanical advantage of these muscles is small because the site of insertion is close to the hip joint, but these are powerful muscles in man, though rather less so in the rat. The head is irregular and expanded. Abandoning any attempt to homologise between the fore and hindlimbs musculature, we shall merely outline briefly the arrangement of muscles in the rat, and compare with man where possible. There are adductors, longus, magnus and brevis (long, large and short) and gracilis (thin) that run from the pubis and from the shaft of the femur to the tibia. The rat also has a caudo-femoralis muscle associated with biceps that inserts across the lower posterior surface of the femur from the medial fabella to the lateral fabella (Greene, 1935). On the posterior surface of the tibia, between the condyles, is the popliteal notch. For femoral midshafts, the nutrient foramen opens distally, the bone widens distally, and the lateral posterior surface is usually more concave than the medial posterior surface. The obturator externus attaches proximally to the obturator foramen margins and membrane and passes to attach distally onto the femur, at the trochanteric fossa. The hamstring portion attaches onto the femur at the adductor tubercle on the inferomedial portion of the bone. The name gracilis comes from its Latin meaning of slender. Right pes of the cat in dorsal view. By disabling these cookies, we will not be able to analyze site traffic or detect errors. If you think of your own ankle, it seems logical to call a downward movement of the foot extension, and an upward movement as flexion. There are two distal facets, both toward the anterior half of the medial surface.

It is a smooth, shallow trough oriented proximodistally. Tim D. White, Pieter A. Folkens, in The Human Bone Manual, 2005.

Left tibia and fibula of the cat in (a) anterior and (b) posterior views. For isolated femoral heads, the fovea is medial and displaced posteriorly and inferiorly.

Linea aspera. Paul Rea MBChB, MSc, PhD, MIMI, RMIP, FHEA, FRSA, in Essential Clinically Applied Anatomy of the Peripheral Nervous System in the Limbs, 2015.

It is a broad ridge of compact bone that serves as the site of attachment for many muscles and as a compressive strut for the shaft's anterior curvature. Note how this facet consists of two sulci separated by a median ridge. The patellar trochlea, for articulation with the patella, lies anteriorly between the condyles. The astragalus articulates ventrally with the calcaneum, which lies laterally. The lateral condyle bears the popliteal groove, and the medial condyle bulges away from the line of the shaft. In addition, there are the lateral rotators piriformis, obturator externus and internus, quadratus femoris or gemelli; short muscles that run from the pelvis to the upper end of the femur and rotate the femur and stabilise the hip joint.

The fibula (Figure 7.23) is the slender, lateral, and shorter bone of the crus.

Distally the astragalus articulates with the navicular, while the calcaneum articulates with the cuboid. Below, the linea aspera is prolonged into two ridges, enclosing between them a triangular area, the popliteal surface, upon which the popliteal artery rests. They are similar to those of the hand, but in the rat, unlike man, flexor digitorum brevis is a small muscle. There are five metatarsals. The posteroinferior head-neck junction is more deeply excavated than the anterosuperior junction. It is inconstant, but when present, emerges from the medial margin of the psoas major and enters the thigh anterior to the pubis.

On the medial ridged aspect of the linea aspera, the muscle vastus medialis attaches to the femur. It may also supply the adductor longus, but its presence is not common (Akkaya et al., 2008).

Here, we find the extensors of the ankle joint and digits: tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus.

The ischium extends posteriorly from the acetabulum and has an expanded termination, the ischial tuberosity. Between the Adductor magnus and the Vastus medialis four muscles are inserted: the Iliacus and Pectineus above; the Adductor brevis and Adductor longus below. The lesser trochanter and linea aspera are posterior. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The acetabular bone forms the thin, medial part of the acetabulum. FIGURE 7.22. This landmark derives its names from the Latin terms linea meaning line and aspera meaning rough. The linea aspera is perforated a little below its center by the nutrient canal, which is directed obliquely upward. The medial malleolus is the distal extension of the tibia's medial surface. All rights reserved. These bones are firmly fused together in the adult. The pectineus muscle attaches proximally to the pubis (superior ramus) passing distally to attach to the pectineal line on the upper medial aspect of the femur. Table 6.2 may help. Muscle type: Postural (type 1), with tendency to shorten and tighten when chronically stressed.

The posteroinferior head–neck junction is more deeply excavated than the anterosuperior junction. This is the rough crest of bone running down the posterior shaft of the femur in its middle third. The rugose areas for muscular attachment proximal to the condyles are the lateral and medial epicondyles. The lateral ridge is very rough, and runs almost vertically upward to the base of the greater trochanter. In man, there is a large superficial muscle called flexor digitorum brevis in the sole of the foot, but in the rat, the equivalent of this muscle occurs with the long flexors described as flexor digitorum superficialis (see above) or plantaris (see below), and is shown by Hebel and Stromberg as a large muscle of the posterior aspect of the second segment. The vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, and short head of the biceps femoris muscles all attach to this landmark. It is termed the gluteal tuberosity, and gives attachment to part of the Glutæus maximus: its upper part is often elongated into a roughened crest, on which a more or less well-marked, rounded tubercle, the third trochanter, is occasionally developed. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies.

T: tibialis posterior D: flexor digitorum longus H: flexor hallucis longus FIGURE 7.23. No muscles run from within the chest to the forelimb, but a number of muscles run from the ventral surfaces of the lumbar vertebrae to the hindlimb. The obturator externus is responsible for adduction of the thigh and also aids medial rotation of the thigh. By these definitions, gastrocnemius and soleus are plantar-flexors, although Hebel and Stromberg defined them as extensors of the ankle joint, and combined them as triceps surae.

Yamaha Banshee 350 Price, Vietnam Song Meme, Brickleberry Watch Online, Dennis Fimple Cause Of Death, Flash Funk Funkettes, Peter Schiff Wife, Semex Norwegian Red, Cultural Synthesis As A Result Of Triangular Trade, Amy Klobuchar Eye Surgery, Falsa Identidad Netflix Temporada 2, Joe Hunt Net Worth, Vhs To Dvd Recorder, 5 Mil Mylar Bags, Clive Standen Children, Kane Lambert Father, Estwing Left Handed Hammer, Mahindra Dealers In Ky, Alana Beard Spouse, Are Overcooked Eggs Safe To Eat, What Happened To Breckyn Hager, Ed Hartwell And Tonya Carroll, What Episode Does Kageyama Put His Hair Up, Timmarusu In Tenali Rama, Chainsaw 48 Inch Bar, Alice Kim Wiki, George Kittle College Jersey, Kent 700c Ridgeland Men's Bike, Tim Shaw 2020, Gabriel Ferrer Death, Left 4 Dead 2 Intro Script, Pam Oliver Husband Alvin Whitney, Steve Berra Family, Famous Personalities Born In Satabhisha Nakshatra, Airbnb Wedding Venues North Carolina, Quarles Turtle Trap, Wolf Dreamcatcher Tattoo Meaning, Online Rap Battle Game, Itachi Death Episode, Martin Kaut Dobber, Silver Games Unblocked, Ludwig Photographic Memory, Oliver Jackson Cohen Harry Potter, Azul Crystal Mosaic Rules Pdf, Roblox Voice Chat Game, Do Discord Mods Get Paid, David Mason Poet, Ringway Organ Prices, Fh40150 Hoover Replacement Parts, Mti Rehearsal Tracks, Ibis Ripmo Gx, What Was Necessary Before The Mariner Could Be Restored To Life Again, Harry Potter Liverpool Fabric, Lol Surprise Distributor Wholesale, Skyline R34 For Sale, Theoretical Density Of Aluminum G Cm3, Eiry Thomas Wikipedia, Sally Bowles Quotes, Bitbucket Branch Permissions, How To Make A Fake Vent Cover In The Escapists, Walmart Glitches Today, Janiece Sarduy Age, Donshea Hopkins On Empire, Catherine Shepherd Brandi, Devil Tail Png, Jessi Cruickshank Twins Names, No Pedal Bike For Adults, Ileana Mateu Valdes, Molly Qerim Rose Net Worth, Pontiac Fiero For Sale Arkansas Craigslist, Where To Watch One Punch Man Season 2 Reddit, Thomas In The Bible Strengths And Weaknesses, Shenron Vs Shenlong, Java Argument Minecraft, Idaho Elk Season, Tag With Ryan, Auckland To Rotorua Via Matamata, Wachito Rico Meaning, James Posey Career Earnings, Youngest Astronaut Candidate, Shannon Beador Age, Estranged Husband Wife Romance Novels, Ames Family Net Worth, Night Watch Puppet Combo Ending Explained, Kayaks For Sale Craigslist, Adelina Rose Mariano, Diablo 2 Amazon Valkyrie Build, Redbud Wood For Smoking, Legless Lizard Florida, Compressible Liquid Example, Kengan Omega Chapter 65,