The winter of 2016/17 was very nearly a very cold winter owing to the presence and position of high pressure, although ultimately only November 2016 was cold widely as a whole. Extended periods of extreme weather, such as the droughts of 1975–1976, summer 2006, and spring 2012, the long hot summers of 1911, 1976, 2003 2006 and 2018, and the winters of 1946–1947, 1962–1963, 2009–2010, and 2010–2011 are often caused by blocking anti-cyclones which can persist for several days, weeks, or even months. Even further south, low temperatures can be recorded, with temperatures well below freezing as far south as Heathrow Airport on 29–31 October 1997, with a lower temperature than any recorded at this station in March, November or December 1997 and even the following January 1998; only on 2 and 4 February 1998 were lower temperatures recorded here that winter. [67] Occasionally, thunderstorms can be severe and produce large hailstones as seen in Ottery St Mary, Devon in October 2008, where drifts reached 1.8 metres (5 ft 11 in). Dr. Ted Fujita (inventor of the Fujita scale), an American meteorologist, was the first to recognise the UK as the top site for tornadoes in 1973. The best of the drier spells are likely to be in southern and central regions. Most of the UK lies in zones 8 or 9. [76] Although most tornadoes are weak, there are occasional destructive events, for example, the Birmingham tornado of 2005 and the London tornado of 2006. Parts of England are dry in global terms, which is contrary to the stereotypical view—London receives just below 650 millimetres (25.6 in) per annum,[58] which is less than Rome, Sydney, or New York City. Very fortunately most tornadoes were short-lived and also weak (the strongest was around T5 on the TORRO Tornado Scale) and no deaths occurred. England generally has higher maximum and minimum temperatures than the other areas of the UK, though Wales has higher minima from November to February, and Northern Ireland has higher maxima from December to February. However, events such as floods and drought may be experienced. They can on occasions bring prolonged periods of heavy rain, and flooding is quite common. Snow falls intermittently and mainly affects northern and eastern areas, high ground in Wales and especially the mountains of Scotland, where there is often enough snow lying to permit skiing at some of the five Scottish ski resorts. As the sun rises higher in the sky and the days get longer, temperatures slowly rise, but the solar effect is mitigated somewhat by the effect of the cool ocean waters and westerly winds that blow across them. On occasions blocking anticyclones (high pressure systems) may move over the United Kingdom, which can persist for weeks or even months. The UK also holds the title for the highest known 'outbreak' of tornadoes outside of the United States.

The maximum recorded temperature was 17.2 °C (63.0 °F) at Teignmouth in Devon and Plockton and Achnagart in the Highlands of Scotland on the 16th. In the height of summer the Northern Isles can have temperatures around 15 °C (59 °F), while Cambridge in the East of England, on 25 July 2019, reached 38.7 °C (101.7 °F).[2]. December 2015 was the wettest month ever recorded in the United Kingdom. However, the cold subsided after Christmas Day, 2010.

However, December 2015 did not break any national records for high temperatures, just failing to reach the maximum England temperature of 17.7 °C (63.9 °F) recorded on 2 December 1985 in Chivenor, Devon and on 11 December 1994 in Penkridge, Staffordshire. [25], Below is a list of the highest and lowest daily minimum temperatures recorded in the UK. Greater London, Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Essex, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Suffolk and Norfolk see the most thunderstorms during the summer. The prevailing wind direction for England is from the south-west. A very severe storm also affected the UK on 27 October 2002. [50] Northern, western and mountainous areas are generally the cloudiest areas of the UK, with some mountainous areas receiving fewer than 1,000 hours of sunshine a year.[50]. This warm water current warms the climate to such a great extent that if the current did not exist then temperatures in winter would be about 10 °C (18 °F) lower than they are today and similar to eastern Russia or Canada near the same latitude. In the 1990s and 2000s, most of the winters were milder and usually wetter than average, with below-freezing daytime temperatures a rare occurrence. Follow our weather live … Temperatures in these areas can rise to 15 °C (59 °F) in winter on rare occasions[64] This is a particularly notable event in northern Scotland, mainly Aberdeenshire, where these high temperatures can occur in midwinter when the sun only reaches about 10° above the horizon. The wettest month in Scotland is January; most months are wetter than other parts of the UK, except for the late spring to early autumn months. His warning comes as the UK has been battered by rain and a 1,000-mile wide 'Norwegian barrage', resulting in a drop in temperatures. In England the average annual temperature varies from 8.5 °C (47.3 °F) in the north to 11 °C (51.8 °F) in the south, but over the higher ground this can be several degrees lower. Northern Ireland is also drier than Wales in every month, yet it rains on more days. However, mild temperatures prevailed during winter 2018/19. Western areas, closest to the Atlantic, experience these severe conditions more often than eastern areas. July is on average the warmest month, and the highest temperatures tend to occur away from the Atlantic in southern, eastern and central England, where summer temperatures can rise above 30 °C (86 °F). [65], While the United Kingdom is not particularly noted for extreme weather, as the regions cool, oceanic climate is opposed to convective storms. Some places in the Somerset Levels remained under water for most of the winter and well into spring. [50] Temperatures tend to drop lowest on late winter nights inland, in the presence of high pressure, clear skies, light winds and when there is snow on the ground.

[46] Despite the warmth, it was the dullest December since 1989. The following day the coldest maximum temperature in England, at −11.3 °C (11.7 °F), was recorded at the same site.[50]. The last glacial period was a period of extreme cold weather that lasted for tens of thousands of years and ended about 10,000 years ago. In Scotland, Fraserburgh in Aberdeenshire recorded 229 km/h (142 mph) on 13 February 1989, which was equalled during Cyclone Xaver on 5 December 2013. On occasions, cold polar or continental air can be drawn in over the United Kingdom to bring very cold weather. [34] On 13 October 2018, temperatures reached 26.5 °C (79.7 °F) at Donna Nook in Lincolnshire, the latest in the year such a high temperature had been recorded. Both registered F2 on the Fujita scale and both caused significant damage and injury. This change is particularly pronounced near the coasts, mainly because the Atlantic Ocean is often at its coldest at this time after being cooled throughout the autumn and the winter. On 23 November 1981, 105 tornadoes were spawned by a cold front in the space of 5.25 hours. The Great Storm of 1987 was a very deep depression which formed in the Bay of Biscay, which also contained the remnants of Hurricane Floyd. [59] Most of the south, south-east and East Anglia receive less than 700 millimetres (27.6 in) of rain per year. Early spring can be quite cold, and occasionally the lowest temperature of the winter can occur in March, as it did at Heathrow Airport on 5 March 2001, 4 March 2006 and 8 March 2011.

[50] Areas of high elevation tend to have higher wind speeds than low elevations, and Great Dun Fell in Cumbria (at 857 m or 2,812 ft) averaged 114 days of gale a year during the period 1963 to 1976. [citation needed]. Snow, frost and ice can be disruptive and damaging to flowering plants, particularly later in the spring. Northern Ireland is warmer than Scotland throughout the year. During the first week changeable weather is expected. A disputed 122 mph gust was recorded on 16 October 1987 at Gorleston in Norfolk during the Great Storm of 1987.

It soared to 38.7 °C (101.7 °F) in Cambridge on 25 July 2019: the highest temperature ever recorded in the United Kingdom. Valley areas such as the South Wales Valleys, due to their north–south orientation, receive less sunshine than lowland areas because the mountains on either side of the valley obscure the sun in the early morning and late evening. The links below are to discussion and long range outlooks. Wales is wetter throughout the year than Northern Ireland and England, but has fewer rainy days than Northern Ireland; meaning that rainfall tends to be more intense. UK weather: Could La Niña phenomenon deliver Britain a record freezing winter? The lowest sunshine hours are found in northern parts of the country and the highest in the southern parts and southern coast of England. Harvey J. E. Rodda, Max A. Rather mixed and at times cool conditions are forecast in September. Precipitation can be plentiful throughout the season, though snow is relatively infrequent despite the country's high latitude: often the only areas with significant snowfall are the Scottish Highlands and the Pennines, where at higher elevations a colder climate determines the vegetation, mainly temperate coniferous forest, although deforestation has severely decreased the forest area. The areas that see the most occur in the southern part of England, while areas in the north and west see very few thunderstorms annually. Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of atmospheric pressure records in Europe, List of natural disasters in the British Isles, "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification",, "New official highest temperature in UK confirmed", "Manchester ringway 1981-2010 mean extreme values", "Monthly weather forecast and Climate – Manchester, United Kingdom", "UK beats winter temperature record again",,, "METEO %%% par Météo-France- Prévisions météo du monde gratuites à 10 jours", "Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh climate",, "National Meteorological Library and Archive Fact sheet 2 — Thunderstorms", "Climate MUMBLES (October 2002) - Climate data (36090)", "London Weather - 1999 Mild, rather wet, and very thundery", "UK weather returns to normal after record-breaking heatwave", "UK's hottest September day in 105 years sets 2016 record", "From UK's hottest place to a taste of winter in just 24 hours",,,,, "Highlands mountain claims strongest UK wind", "40 die as one year's rain falls in a day", "Official: this summer is the longest, hottest ever", "December 2015 was the wettest month ever recorded in UK", "Daily Weather Report/Daily Weather Summary", "Analysis of drought characteristics for improved understanding of a water resource system", "Deadly storm and tidal surge batter northern Europe", A digital archive of extreme rainfalls in the British Isles from 1866 to 1968 based on British Rainfall, "An updated estimate of tornado occurrence in Europe", "TORRO - British & European Tornado Extremes", "UK's 10 warmest years all occurred since 2002",,,,,,, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Wikipedia articles that are excessively detailed from September 2018, All articles that are excessively detailed, Wikipedia articles with style issues from September 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source 1: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, Source 2: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Kielder Castle, Northumberland (17 Jul 1965), Kielder Castle, Northumberland (14 Aug 1994), Bawtry, Hesley Hall, South Yorkshire (2 Sep 1906), Grendon Underwood, Buckinghamshire (30 Sep 1969), Chelmsford & Clacton & Galleywood & Halstead & Writtle, Essex (5 Nov 1938), Knockarevan, County Fermanagh (26 Jan 2003), Boom Hall, County Londonderry (26 Apr 1984), Moydamlaght, County Londonderry (7 May 1982), Knockarevan, County Fermanagh (30 Jun 1976), Lough Navar Forest, County Fermanagh (4 Jun 1991), Shaw's Bridge, Belfast, County Antrim (12 Jul 1983), Lislap Forest, County Tyrone (17 Jul 1971), Tandragee Ballylisk, County Armagh (2 Aug 1995), Lough Navar Forest, County Fermanagh (18 Oct 1993), Ballykelly, County Londonderry (2 Dec 1948), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire on 25 July 2019, Edgmond, near Newport, Shropshire on 10 January 1982, Hawarden Bridge, Flintshire on 2 August 1990, Greycook, Scottish Borders on 9 August 2003, Braemar, Aberdeenshire on 11 February 1895 and 10 January 1982, Altnaharra, Sutherland on 30 December 1995, Knockarevan, near Belleek, County Fermanagh on 30 June 1976, Castlederg, County Tyrone on 23 December 2010, Logie Coldstone, Aberdeenshire (14 Mar 1958), Ampleforth, North Yorkshire (27 Aug 1919), Glenmore Lodge, Inverness-shire (17 Oct 1973), Fyvie Castle, Aberdeenshire (29 Dec 1995), Magilligan, County Londonderry (25 Jan 2016), Kenley Airfield, Greater London (19 Apr 2018), Ventnor Park, Isle of Wight (22 Jun 1976), This page was last edited on 25 October 2020, at 14:56.

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