Return to text. Constanzo Antegnati, L'Arte Organica (Brescia, 1608) — see especially the chapter “Modo di registrar li organi.” Perhaps one of the earliest printed occurences of the term "legato." 1633). Francesco Sansovino, Cento novelle scelte da piu nobili scrittori della lingua volgare (Venice, 1562), 397 "non si truova un'altra sua pari, e per sicurezza, nel canto, e per vaghezza & attillatura nel modo del cantare, & per dolcezza nella voce e nel tremolo ch'ella leggiadramente usa cantando."

Return to text. However, throughout the centuries it has most often employed cylindrical resonators, usually 1/4 or 1/8 length, and usually partially or fully capped. Morsolino was against the change of pitch, but very enthusiastic about the tremolo. Chelys. A survey of medieval sources on singing can be consulted in Franz Müller-Heuser, Vox humana: ein Beitrag zur Untersuchung der Stimmästhetik des Mittelalters (Regensburg: 1963). Kellogg Auditorium, Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. ––––––––––––––––––––––––, It is often a surprise, even for historically informed performers, to discover that undulating organ stops were created as early as the beginning of sixteenth century. The Voix Humaine was a standard voice in the Grand Orgue Return to text. 19. In Italy, the earliest flauto is documented in Naples in 1474.

Schneider 2002 opus XXIII.

"51, An indirect but fascinating indication of the situation in England is found in Dublin in 1699, when John Baptist Cuvillie describes his own improvement of the vox humana at the Christ Church Cathedral: "I removed the Voxhumane which was on the Chairorgan before, Now to the Great Organ, and for to adorne that Stop and to make itt appeare like a humane voice, I added a Tramblan Stop to itt—and to make itt ye more naturall. 3 (July, 1961), 212–220. 33. His refined sense for orchestration and timbre, made explicit in his Orfeo (1607), shows a powerful world of new possibilities in the luxuriant scoring of the Vespro: the fully scored Magnificat for seven voices and six instruments, calls for two real fiffare, the "trembling" traversos, in the Quia respexit. France; Silbermann 1710. Anthropoglossa 8', Celestial; Holy Trinity Lutheran Church, This is the period in which vocal tremolo appears in German choral-school books.

Georg Quitschreiber, De Canendi Elegantia (Jena, 1598).

For him, the vocal waved sound is totally compatible with steadiness of pitch. This remark is often interpreted today as a condemnation of all forms of vocal oscillation in music of that period.

It has been often stated that the most important stop in any Voz Humana en Eco 8', Manual right; San Mateo, Tarifa, A tremulant is also essential, which must be

The vox humana is one of the oldest reeds in organ building, based on its appearance in very early instruments. 24: "Auch ist dazu, eine a parte sanffte Schwebung angeleget, weil ein starker Tremulant, eine solche subtile Stimme alzusehr forciret, und selbige unangenehm machet."

In the Fecit potentiam, the strings are accompanied by the Principale & registro delle zifare ò, voci umane. Vox Humana 8', Bovenwerk; St. John's, Schiedam, Holland;

The Division Viol (1665), 10. Fabio Colonna, La Sambuca Lincea, ovvero dell'istromento musico perfetto (Naples, 1618), 111–116: "e una voce differente dal Tremolante che sogliono fare gli communi Organi, che è malinconica, & che interrompe, & sbatte la voce, imperoche che questa è allegra, & continua, ma gargante: che radoppia la voce senza interropimento, & par che sia moltiplicato il suono..." (112). Return to text. ("Oratione funebre nella morte della Signora Alessandra Lardi. Return to text. Groundbreaking research by Robert Bates on French Renaissance organs shows strikingly early mentions of jeux or stop combinations (often two flue stops) whose names show an intent to imitate human voices, such as chantres (1510 Saint-Michel, Bordeaux; 1514 Saint-Seurin, Bordeaux; 1530 Toulouse Cathedral).12 In 1551, the term appears again (Saint-Etienne, Troyes), describing a jeu de voix humaine which imitates "four singers with trembling voices" ("contrefaictes comme quattre chanttres a voix tramblant"), next to an undefined combination "resembling the voice of a falsetto," ("resemblant a la voix dun faulcet"), and a jeux de brodes (a quite obscure term) "singing like pilgrims on their way to Saint James, with trembling voices" ("chantans comme pelerins quy vont in a sainct Jaques auec vne voix tramblant"). This evolution is thoroughly documented in the aforementioned articles by Tagliavini (2001) and Donati (2013).

41. The photograph below left shows a Vox Humana 8' in its own


The Vox humana (Latin for "human voice;" also "voz humana" in Spanish and Portuguese, "voix humaine" in French and "voce umana" in Italian, although "voce umana" is also a term for a celeste stop, q.v.)

He was awarded the Edwin Fischer Gedenkpreis in 2006 and the Finalist Prize at the Handel Singing Competition in 2008. Lodovico Zacconi, Prattica di Musica (Venice, 1592), Libro I, f.55, Cap.

Return to text. 17. In 1558, Vincenzo Colombi adds a fiffaro to his organ in Valvasone. Vox humana stops in very old organs had a fairly wide variety of designs and tonal qualities. 47. 25. Constance Frei, L’Arco Sonoro (Lucca, 2010), 195-239. The brochure about the instrument, printed by Johann Friderich Walther, mentions "one tremulant and separately a mild Schwebung for the Voce Humana" because "a strong tremulant would force such a subtle voice and make it unpleasant. Return to text. "23 The blind poet Luigi Grotto mourns another remarkable singer, Alessandra Lardi, upon her death in 1568, remembering the "minute and undulating accents of her sweetly trembling voice. He has sung under the direction of William Christie (Purcell: The Fairy Queen in Aix-en-Provence, Stefano Landi: Sant’Alessio, several tours with music by Lambert and Charpentier), Facundo Agudin (Mozart: Così fan tutte, Don Giovanni, Die Zauberflöte, Le nozze di Figaro, Mozart and Fauré's Requiems, Puccini’s Mass), Laurence Cummings (Belshazzar, Theodora, Messiah, and Siroe), Christophe Rousset (Pergolesi: San Guglielmo), Hervé Niquet (Marais: Sémélé), Anthony Rooley (William Hayes: The Passions, on CD, Choc de Classica Award), Václav Luks (Bach: Matthäuspassion, Handel: La Resurrezione), Paul Agnew (Songs & Catches by Purcell, Monteverdi: Complete books of Madrigals), Douglas Bostock (Smetana: The Bartered Bride), and many others. Return to text.

to its effect. In this environment of great diversity, organs begin to imitate the sound of other instruments.11 The early sixteenth century is marked by a rapid development of imitative stops.

Return to text. Cádiz, Spain; 1762. which no organ in England can show the like, for they have not found out to make a Tramblan Stop—And for want of that Stop all their Voxhumanes are deficient, whereas I have made this stop ye naturall imitation of a voxhumane as perfect as any organ beyond Sea."52. © document.write(new Date().getFullYear()); Vox Humana | Design: HTML5 UPAn affiliate of the American Guild of Organistseditor@voxhumanajournal.com.

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